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Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica isolated from pet dogs and cats
Songsak Srisanga1,2, Sunpetch Angkititrakul3, Patcharee Sringam3, Phuong T. Le Ho1,4, An T. T. Vo4, Rungtip Chuanchuen1,2,*
1Research Unit in Microbial Food Safety and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
2Center for Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring in Foodborne Pathogens (in cooperation with WHO), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
3Research Group for Prevention Technology in Livestock, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
4Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Vietnam
Correspondence to: Tel: +66-2218-9578; Fax: +66-2218-9577; E-mail: rchuanchuen@yahoo.com
Received: March 7, 2016; Revised: July 5, 2016; Accepted: August 26, 2016; Published online: September 1, 2016.
A total of 122 Salmonella isolates from dogs (n=113) and cats (n=9) comprising 32 serotypes were obtained from household dogs (n=250) and cats (n=50) during 2012-2015. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, examining phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance and screening virulence genes. Serovars Weltevreden (15.6%) and Typhimurium (13.9%) were the most common serotypes. The majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant (43%). The dog isolates (12.3%) harbored class 1 integrons, of which the dfrA12-aadA2 cassette was most frequently identified (66.7%). Only class integrons in a serovar Albany was located on conjugative plasmid. Two ESBL producers (i.e. a serovar Krefeld and a serovar Enteritridis) carried blaTEM and blaCTX-M and the blaTEM gene in both isolates was horizontally transferred. Of all plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes tested, only qnrS (4.9%) was detected. The majority of the Salmonella isolates harbored invA (100%), prgH (91.8%) and sipB (91%). The positive associations between resistance and virulence genes was observed for blaPSE-1/orgA, cmlA/spaN, tolC and sul1/tolC (p<0.05). In conclusion, the results suggest that companion dogs and cats serve as potential sources of Salmonella carrying various resistance and virulence genes and that antimicrobial use in companion animals selects for the examined virulence factors in Salmonella.
Keywords: Salmonella enterica, antimicrobial resistance, class 1 integrons, pets, virulence genes

© 2016 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.