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Evaluation of the ureteral jet in dogs using Doppler ultrasonography
Hyunjung Oh1, Seongsoo Kim1, Suyeon Kim1, Jeosoon Lee1, Sookyung Yun1, Junghee Yoon1, Joohyun Jung2, Mincheol Choi1,*
1Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2Ilsan Animal Medical Center, Goyang 411-803, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-02-880-1278; Fax: +82-02-876-8662; E-mail: mcchoi@snu.ac.kr
Received: February 11, 2016; Revised: September 24, 2016; Accepted: November 23, 2016; Published online: January 4, 2017.
Ureteral jets are caused by the forceful ejection of urine from the vesicoureteral junction into the urinary bladder. We aimed to identify distinct ureteral jets in dogs by using color Doppler ultrasonography (US), provide insight into ureteral obstruction, and facilitate the study of urodynamics and vesicoureteric sphincter function using pulsed Doppler US. Color Doppler US was applied to detect urinary flow from the right ureteral orifice in eight healthy beagles. Under anesthesia, 0.9% saline (2.5 ml/kg/h) and furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously to detect distinct ureteral jets, and their frequency, velocity, duration, and waveform were recorded. In all dogs, ureteral jets were clearly visualized within 2–5 min (mean, 3.57 ± 0.90 min) under diuresis and anesthesia. The mean frequency, peak velocity, and duration of the right ureteral jet in seven of the dogs, in whom six ureteral jet waveform patterns were identified, were 9.86 ± 3.09 jets/min, 34.07 ± 10.02 cm/s, and 2.82 ± 1.08 s, respectively. Moreover, during the 10-min period starting 10 min after the initial jet appeared, only three waveforms were identified. Therefore, Doppler US examination of ureteral jets may aid in assessing vesicoureteric sphincter function and ureteral abnormalities such as ureteral obstruction in dogs.
Keywords: Doppler, dogs, obstruction, ultrasonography, ureteral jet

© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.