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J. Vet. Sci. 2017; 18(S1): 291-298  
Seroprevalence of three influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8) in pet dogs presented to a veterinary hospital in Ohio
Hyesun Jang1,2, Yasmine K. Jackson3, Joshua B. Daniels4, Ahmed Ali1,†, Kyung-il Kang1, Mohamed Elaish1,2, Chang-Won Lee1,2,*
1Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, 3Department of Animal Sciences, and 4Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Correspondence to: Tel: +1-330-263-3750; Fax: +1-330-263-3677; E-mail: lee.2854@osu.edu
Received: January 18, 2016; Revised: May 24, 2016; Accepted: July 21, 2016; Published online: August 31, 2017.
The prevalence of canine H3N8 influenza and human H1N1 and H3N2 influenza in dogs in Ohio was estimated by conducting serologic tests on 1,082 canine serum samples. In addition, risk factors, such as health status and age were examined. The prevalences of human H1N1, H3N2, and canine H3N8 influenzas were 4.0%, 2.4%, and 2.3%, respectively. Two samples were seropositive for two subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2; H1N1 and canine influenza virus [CIV] H3N8). Compared to healthy dogs, dogs with respiratory signs were 5.795 times more likely to be seropositive against H1N1 virus (p = 0.042). The prevalence of human flu infection increased with dog age and varied by serum collection month. The commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used in this study did not detect nucleoprotein-specific antibodies from many hemagglutination inhibition positive sera, which indicates a need for the development and validation of rapid tests for influenza screening in canine populations. In summary, we observed low exposure of dogs to CIV and human influenza viruses in Ohio but identified potential risk factors for consideration in future investigations. Our findings support the need for establishment of reliable diagnostic standards for serologic detection of influenza infection in canine species.
Keywords: canine influenza, cross-sectional studies, prevalence, risk factors, serology

© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.