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J Vet Sci 2017; 18(3): 261-266  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2017.18.3.261
Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus
Changhwan Ahn1, Ji-Houn Kang2, Eui-Bae Jeung1,*
1Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, and 2Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
Correspondence to: Eui-Bae Jeung
Tel: +82-43-261-2397; Fax: +82-43-267-3150; E-mail: ebjeung@chungbuk.ac.kr
Received: January 31, 2017; Revised: April 16, 2017; Accepted: May 5, 2017; Published online: September 30, 2017.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research. There are consistent results supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of DM. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids, and some meta-analyses support an increase in insulin sensitivity, following vitamin D supplementation. This review provides an overview of the calcium and vitamin D disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. Such elucidation will help indicate potential pathophysiology-based precautionary and therapeutic approaches and contribute to lowering the incidence of DM.
Keywords: calcium, calcium channels, diabetes mellitus

© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.