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J Vet Sci 2017; 18(3): 267-272  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2017.18.3.267
Inoculation of Lewis lung carcinoma cells enhances formalin-induced pain behavior and spinal Fos expression in mice
Jae-Gyun Choi1,†, Jae-Min Kim1,†,‡, Dong-Wook Kang1, Jung-Wan Choi1,2, Jin Bong Park1, Seong-Hun Ahn3, Yeonhee Ryu2, Hyun-Woo Kim1,*
1Department of Physiology and Medical Science and Brain Research Institute, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea
2KM Fundamental Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
3Department of Meridian & Acupoint, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyun-Woo Kim
Tel: +82-42-580-8217; Fax: +82-42-585-8440; E-mail: kim0827@cnu.ac.kr
Received: February 22, 2016; Revised: June 1, 2016; Accepted: August 26, 2016; Published online: September 30, 2017.
Abstract
The incidence of lung cancer has rapidly increased and cancer patients at a later cancer stage frequently suffer from unbearable cancer-associated pain. However, the pathophysiology of lung cancer pain has not been fully described due to a lack of appropriate animal models. This study was designed to determine the effect of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell inoculation on formalin-induced pain behavior and spinal Fos expression in C57BL/6 mice. LLC cells (1.5 × 105, 2.5 × 105, 3.0 × 105 or 5.0 × 105) were inoculated into back or peri-sciatic nerve areas. Back area inoculation was adopted to determine the effect of cancer cell circulating factors and the peri-sciatic nerve area was used to evaluate the possible effects of cancer cell contacting and circulating factors on formalin-induced pain. At postinoculation day 7, LLC cell (5.0 × 105) inoculations in both back and peri-sciatic nerve area significantly increased formalin-induced paw-licking time and spinal Fos expression over those in cell-media-inoculated (control) mice. Enhanced pain behavior and spinal Fos expression were significantly suppressed by ibuprofen pretreatment (250 mg/kg). The results of this study suggest that LLC cell circulating factors and inflammatory responses may be critical in enhancing pain sensation in the early stage of lung cancer cell inoculation.
Keywords: Fos, Lewis lung carcinoma, formalin, lung neoplasms, pain


© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.