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J Vet Sci 2017; 18(3): 273-281  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2017.18.3.273
Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Salmonella enterica isolated from pet dogs and cats
Songsak Srisanga1,2, Sunpetch Angkititrakul3, Patcharee Sringam3, Phuong T. Le Ho1,4, An T. T. Vo4, Rungtip Chuanchuen1,2,*
1Research Unit in Microbial Food Safety and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Veterinary Public Health, and 2Center for Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring in Foodborne Pathogens (in cooperation with WHO), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3Research Group for Prevention Technology in Livestock, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
4Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh 70000, Vietnam
Correspondence to: Rungtip Chuanchuen
Tel: +66-2218-9578; Fax: +66-2218-9577; E-mail: rchuanchuen@yahoo.com
Received: March 7, 2016; Revised: July 5, 2016; Accepted: August 26, 2016; Published online: September 30, 2017.
Salmonella enterica isolates (n = 122), including 32 serotypes from 113 dogs and 9 cats, were obtained from household dogs (n = 250) and cats (n = 50) during 2012–2015. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance phenotyping and genotyping, and virulence gene screening. Serovars Weltevreden (15.6%) and Typhimurium (13.9%) were the most common. The majority (43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. The dog isolates (12.3%) harbored class 1 integrons, of which the dfrA12-aadA2 cassette was most frequent (66.7%). The only class integron in serovar Albany was located on a conjugative plasmid. Two ESBL-producing isolates (i.e., a serovar Krefeld and a serovar Enteritridis) carried blaTEM and blaCTX-M, and the blaTEM gene in both was horizontally transferred. Of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes tested, only qnrS (4.9%) was detected. Most Salmonella isolates harbored invA (100%), prgH (91.8%), and sipB (91%). Positive associations between resistance and virulence genes were observed for blaPSE-1/orgA, cmlA/span, tolC, and sul1/tolC (p < 0.05). The results suggest that companion dogs and cats are potential sources of S. enterica strains that carry resistance and virulence genes and that antimicrobial use in companion animals may select for the examined Salmonella virulence factors.
Keywords: Salmonella enterica, antimicrobial resistance, integrons, pets, virulence factors

© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.