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J Vet Sci 2017; 18(3): 399-406  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2017.18.3.399
Evaluation of the ureteral jet in dogs by using color Doppler ultrasonography
Hyunjung Oh1, Seongsoo Kim1, Suyeon Kim1, Jeosoon Lee1, Sookyung Yun1, Junghee Yoon1, Joohyun Jung2, Mincheol Choi1,*
1Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2Ilsan Animal Medical Center, Goyang 10368, Korea
Correspondence to: Mincheol Choi
Tel: +82-2-880-1278; Fax: +82-2-876-8662; E-mail: mcchoi@snu.ac.kr
Received: February 11, 2016; Revised: September 24, 2016; Accepted: November 23, 2016; Published online: September 30, 2017.
Abstract
Ureteral jets are the result of a forceful ejection of urine from the vesicoureteral junction into the urinary bladder. By using color Doppler ultrasonography (US), we aimed to identify distinct ureteral jets in dogs, provide insight into ureteral obstruction, and facilitate study of urodynamics and vesicoureteric sphincter function via pulsed Doppler US. Color Doppler US was applied to detect urinary flow from the right ureteral orifices in eight healthy beagles. Under anesthesia, 0.9% saline (2.5 mL/kg/h) and furosemide (0.5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously to assist in detection of distinct ureteral jets and examine their frequency, velocity, duration, and waveform. In all dogs, ureteral jets were visualized under diuresis and anesthesia within 2 to 5 min (mean 3.57 ± 0.90 min) of the furosemide injection. Mean frequency, peak velocity, and duration of right ureteral jets in seven dogs in whom six ureteral jet waveform patterns were identified were 9.86 ± 3.09 jets/min, 34.07 ± 10.02 cm/sec, and 2.82 ± 1.08 sec, respectively. During the 10 min period starting 10 min after the initial jet appeared, only three waveforms were identified. Color Doppler US of ureteral jets may aid in assessing vesicoureteric sphincter function and ureteral abnormalities, such as ureteral obstruction, in dogs.
Keywords: Doppler ultrasonography, dogs, ureteral jet, ureteral obstruction


© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.