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Cytological endometritis in dairy cows: diagnostic threshold, risk factors, and impact on reproductive performance
Soo Chan Lee1, Jae Kwan Jeong1, In Soo Choi1, Hyun Gu Kang1, Young Hun Jung2, Soo Bong Park2, Ill Hwa Kim1,*
1Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
2National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 31000, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-43-261-2571; Fax: +82-43-2673150; E-mail: illhwa@cbu.ac.kr
Received: June 5, 2017; Revised: August 24, 2017; Accepted: October 26, 2017; Published online: November 23, 2017.
We determined the threshold proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) for the diagnosis of cytological endometritis (CEM), the risk factors for this condition, and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Uterine cytology was performed on 407 Holstein cows 4 weeks postpartum to determine the proportions of endometrial cells and PMNs. A receiver operator characteristics curve was used to determine the threshold above which the PMN proportion affected the likelihood of cows conceiving by 200 days postpartum. The optimal threshold was ≥14% PMN (sensitivity, 31.3%; specificity, 81.7%; p < 0.05). The farm identity, retained placenta (odds ratio [OR]: 1.87), and septicemic metritis (OR: 3.07) were risk factors for CEM (p < 0.05). Cows with CEM were less likely to resume cyclicity (OR: 0.58) and to conceive by 200 days postpartum (hazard ratio: 0.58). Cows with CEM tended (p < 0.1) to be less likely to become pregnant after their first insemination (OR: 0.65) and to require a greater number of inseminations per conception (2.3 vs. 2.2). In conclusion, the threshold count of PMNs was 14% to define CEM at 4 weeks postpartum, and the farm, retained placenta, and septicemic metritis were risk factors for CEM, which reduced subsequent reproductive performance.
Keywords: cytological endometritis, dairy cow, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, reproductive performance, risk factor

© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.