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J Vet Sci 2017; 18(4): 449-456  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2017.18.4.449
Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from companion animals, pet-owners, and non-pet-owners
Yeon Soo Chung1, Yoon Sung Hu1, Sook Shin1, Suk Kyung Lim2, Soo Jin Yang3, Yong Ho Park1, Kun Taek Park1,*
1Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, BK21 Plus Program for Veterinary Science and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
2Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
3Department of Animal Science and Technology, College of Biotechnology and Natural Resource, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 06974, Korea
Correspondence to: Kun Taek Park
Tel: +82-2-880-4175; Fax: +82-2-871-7524; E-mail: magic007@snu.ac.kr
Received: November 14, 2016; Revised: February 8, 2017; Accepted: February 22, 2017; Published online: December 31, 2017.
The present study investigated the prevalence and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone (FQ)/quinolone (Q) resistance in Escherichia (E.) coli isolates from companion animals, pet-owners, and non-pet-owners. A total of 63 E. coli isolates were collected from 104 anal swab samples, and 27 nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant isolates were identified. Of those, 10 showed ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance. A plasmid-mediated Q resistance gene was detected in one isolate. Increased efflux pump activity, as measured by organic solvent tolerance assay, was detected in 18 NA-resistant isolates (66.7%), but was not correlated with an increase in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Target gene mutations in Q resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were the main cause of (FQ)Q resistance in E. coli. Point mutations in QRDRs were detected in all NA-resistant isolates, and the number of mutations was strongly correlated with increased MIC (R = 0.878 for NA and 0.954 for CIP). All CIP-resistant isolates (n = 10) had double mutations in the gyrA gene, with additional mutations in parC and parE. Interestingly, (FQ)Q resistance mechanisms in isolates from companion animals were the same as those in humans. Therefore, prudent use of (FQ)Q in veterinary medicine is warranted to prevent the dissemination of (FQ)Q-resistant bacteria from animals to humans.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, antimicrobial drug resistance, fluoroquinolones, pets, quinolones

© 2017 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.