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Towards the development of a one-dose classical swine fever subunit vaccine: antigen titration, onset and duration of immunity
Rachel Flores Madera1, Lihua Wang1, Wenjie Gong 2, Yulia Burakova1, Sterling Buist1, Jerome Nietfeld3, Jamie Henningson3, Ada G Cino Ozuna3, Changchun Tu2, Jishu Shi1,*
Departments of 1Anatomy and Physiology, and 3Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology,College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

2Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun 130062, China
Correspondence to: Tel: +1-785-532-5666; Fax: +1-785-532-4557; E-mail: ,a href="mailto:jshi@ksu.edu">jshi@ksu.edu
Received: November 23, 2017; Revised: February 6, 2018; Accepted: February 10, 2018; Published online: March 6, 2018.
The highly contagious classical swine fever (CSF) remains a major trade and health problem in the pig industry, causing large economic losses worldwide. Modified live vaccines (MLV), commonly derived from the attenuated CSF virus (CSFV) C-strain, have been routinely used to control the disease in CSF-endemic countries. However, to completely eradicate the disease, a potent, safe and non-infectious CSF vaccine should be easily accessible and available. This study aims to develop a cost-effective, non infectious CSF subunit vaccine that can elicit rapid and long lasting immunity. We report on a series of animal studies to study the efficacy of a CSF E2 subunit vaccine in oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, KNB-E2. Swine vaccination and CSFV challenge experiments showed that a single KNB-E2 dose with 25 µg of recombinant CSFV glycoprotein E2 can reduce disease and protect from clinical symptoms. In addition, KNB-E2-mediated reduction of CSF symptoms was observed at two weeks post vaccination and the vaccinated pigs continued to exhibit reduced CSF clinical signs when challenged at two months and four months post vaccination. These results suggest that KNB-E2 effectively reduces CSF clinical signs and the potential of this vaccine to safely minimize CSF-related losses.
Keywords: Classical swine fever, subunit vaccine, CSF E2, adjuvant, vaccine development

© 2018 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.