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J Vet Sci 2018; 19(2): 301-308  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.2.301
Cytological endometritis in dairy cows: diagnostic threshold, risk factors, and impact on reproductive performance
Soo Chan Lee1, Jae Kwan Jeong1, In Soo Choi1, Hyun Gu Kang1, Young Hun Jung2, Soo Bong Park2, Ill Hwa Kim1,*
1Veterinary Medical Center and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
2National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-43-261-2571; Fax: +82-43-2673150; E-mail: illhwa@cbu.ac.kr
Received: June 5, 2017; Revised: August 24, 2017; Accepted: October 26, 2017; Published online: March 31, 2018.
We determined the threshold proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) for a diagnosis of cytological endometritis (CEM), the risk factors for this condition, and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. Uterine cytology was performed on 407 Holstein cows 4 weeks postpartum to determine the proportions of endometrial cells and PMNs. A receiver operator characteristics curve was used to determine the threshold above which the PMN proportion affected the likelihood of cows conceiving by 200 days postpartum. The optimal threshold was ≥ 14% PMN (sensitivity, 31.3%; specificity, 81.7%; p < 0.05). The farm identity, retained placenta (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87), and septicemic metritis (OR = 3.07) were risk factors for CEM (p < 0.05). Cows with CEM were less likely to resume cyclicity (OR = 0.58) and to conceive by 200 days postpartum (hazard ratio = 0.58). Cows with CEM tended (p < 0.1) to be less likely to become pregnant after their first insemination (OR = 0.65) and to require a greater number of inseminations per conception (2.3 vs. 2.2). In conclusion, a PMN threshold of 14% defined the presence of CEM at 4 weeks postpartum. The farm, retained placenta, and septicemic metritis were risk factors for CEM, which reduces subsequent reproductive performance.
Keywords: cytological endometritis, dairy cow, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, reproductive performance, risk factors

© 2018 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.