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J Vet Sci 2018; 19(3): 350-357  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.3.350
Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs
Sayed Samim Rahpaya1,2,9,†, Shinobu Tsuchiaka1,2,†, Mai Kishimoto1, Mami Oba1, Yukie Katayama1, Yuka Nunomura1, Saki Kokawa1, Takashi Kimura3, Atsushi Kobayashi3, Yumi Kirino4, Tamaki Okabayashi4, Nariaki Nonaka4, Hirohisa Mekata4, Hiroshi Aoki5, Mai Shiokawa5, Moeko Umetsu5, Tatsushi Morita5, Ayako Hasebe6, Keiko Otsu6, Tetsuo Asai2,6, Tomohiro Yamaguchi7, Shinji Makino8, Yoshiteru Murata1, Ahmad Jan Abi9, Tsutomu Omatsu1,2, Tetsuya Mizutani1,2,*
1Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Diseases of Animals, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-0045, Japan
2United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, and 6Education and Research Center for Food Animal Health (GeFAH), Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
3Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0808, Japan
4Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan
5Faculty of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan
7Canine-Lab. Inc., Tokyo 184-0012, Japan
8Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77555-1019, USA
9Faculty of Veterinary Science, Paraclinic Department, Kabul University, Kabul 1006, Afghanistan
Correspondence to: Tel: +81-42-367-5749; Fax: +81-42-367-5742; E-mail: tmizutan@cc.tuat.ac.jp
The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: October 30, 2017; Revised: December 12, 2017; Accepted: December 26, 2017; Published online: May 31, 2018.
Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.
Keywords: Dembo polymerase chain reaction, cattle, disease reservoirs, disease vectors, virulence factors

© 2018 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.