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J Vet Sci 2018; 19(3): 406-415  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.3.406
Identification, sequence analysis, and infectivity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from geese
Rui Zhu1,2,†, Xueqin Yang1,2,†, Jianjun Zhang3, Danwen Xu1,2, Jiawen Fan1,2, Huoying Shi1,2,*, Shifeng Wang4, Xiufan Liu1,2
1College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
2Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China
3Sinopharm Yangzhou VAC Biological Engineering Co., Ltd., Yangzhou 225009, China
4Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Correspondence to: Tel: +86-514-87977968; Fax: +86-514-87972218; E-mail: hyshi@yzu.edu.cn
The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: May 24, 2017; Revised: December 9, 2017; Accepted: December 29, 2017; Published online: May 31, 2018.
The subtype H9N2 avian influenza virus greatly threatens the Chinese poultry industry, even with annual vaccination. Waterfowl can be asymptomatically infected with the H9N2 virus. In this study, three H9N2 virus strains, designated A/Goose/Jiangsu/YZ527/2011 (H9N2, Gs/JS/YZ527/11), A/Goose/Jiangsu/SQ119/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/SQ119/12), and A/Goose/Jiangsu/JD564/2012 (H9N2, Gs/JS/JD564/12), were isolated from domestic geese. Molecular characterization of the three isolates showed that the Gs/JS/YZ527/11 virus is a double-reassortant virus, combining genes of A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2, G1/97)-like and A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 (H9N2, F/98)-like; the Gs/JS/SQ119/12 virus is a triple-reassortant virus combining genes of G1/97-like, F/98-like, and A/Duck/Shantou/163/2004 (H9N2, ST/163/04)-like. The sequences of Gs/JS/JD564/12 share high homology with those of the F/98 virus, except for the neuraminidase gene, whereas the internal genes of Gs/JS/YZ527/11 and Gs/JS/SQ119/12 are closely related to those of the H7N9 viruses. An infectivity analysis of the three isolates showed that Gs/JS/SQ119/12 and Gs/JS/YZ527/11 replicated well, with seroconversion, in geese and chickens, the Gs/JS/JD564/12 did not infect well in geese or chickens, and the F/98 virus only infected chickens, with seroconversion. Emergence of these new reassortant H9N2 avian influenza viruses indicates that these viruses can infect both chicken and goose and can produce different types of lesions in each species.
Keywords: H9N2, biological characteristics, chickens, geese, infection

© 2018 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.