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J Vet Sci 2018; 19(4): 536-542  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.4.536
A Salmonella Typhi ghost induced by the E gene of phage φX174 stimulates dendritic cells and efficiently activates the adaptive immune response
Gayeon Won, Seong Kug Eo, Sang-Youel Park, Jin Hur, John Hwa Lee*
College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, Iksan 54596, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-63-850-0940; Fax: +82-63-850-0910; E-mail: johnhlee@jbnu.ac.kr
Received: November 14, 2017; Revised: February 2, 2018; Accepted: March 7, 2018; Published online: July 31, 2018.
Previously, we genetically engineered a Salmonella Typhi bacterial ghost (STG) as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. The underlying mechanism employed by the ghost in stimulating the adaptive immune response remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of STG on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and its activation of the adaptive immune response in vitro. Immature BMDCs were stimulated with STG, which efficiently stimulated maturation events in BMDCs, as indicated by upregulated expressions of CD40, CD80, and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on CD11+ BMDCs. Immature BMDCs responded to STG stimulation by significantly increasing the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, which might indicate the induction of dendritic cell maturation in vivo (p < 0.05). In addition, ghost-stimulated murine BMDCs showed significant expressions of interferon gamma and IL-4, which can drive the development of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, in co-cultured CD4+ T cells in vitro. These results suggest that STG can effectively stimulate maturation of BMDCs and facilitate subsequent immune responses via potent immunomodulatory cytokine responses.
Keywords: Salmonella Typhi, dendritic cells, innate immunity 

© 2018 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.