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J Vet Sci 2018; 19(5): 635-642  https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2018.19.5.635
Clostridium botulinum spores in Polish honey samples
Tomasz Grenda1,*, Magdalena Grabczak1, Zbigniew Sieradzki1, Krzysztof Kwiatek1, Krystyna Pohorecka2, Marta Skubida2, Andrzej Bober2
Departments of 1Hygiene of Animal Feedingstuffs and 2Honey Bee Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Correspondence to: Tel: +48-81-889-3191; Fax: +48-81-886-2595; E-mail: tomasz.grenda@piwet.pulawy.pl
Received: April 13, 2018; Revised: May 24, 2018; Accepted: June 10, 2018; Published online: September 30, 2018.
The aim of this study was an examination of 240 multifloral honey samples collected from Polish apiaries to determine Clostridium botulinum occurrence. Honey was collected from apiaries directly after the extraction process. Samples were inoculated by using the dilution and centrifugation method. Suspected isolates were examined by using mouse bioassay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR methods. C. botulinum type A and B strains were detected in 5 of 240 examined honey samples (2.1%). Bacterial strains were also detected that were phenotypically similar to C. botulinum but that did not exhibit the ability to produce botulinum toxins and did not show the presence of the botulinum cluster (ntnh and bont genes) or expression of the ntnh gene. The methods used in the examination, especially the expression analysis of ntnh gene, enabled specific analysis of suspected strains and could be used routinely in environmental isolate analyses of C. botulinum occurrence.
Keywords: Clostridium botulinum, Polish apiaries, honey, neurotoxins

© 2018 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.